AKRI

Thinking : Philosophers.

In order to foster a greater appreciation of current thinking about the nature of knowledge we feel that is useful to look at how knowledge has been thought about by previous generations. So here is a brief history of knowledge through philosophical analysis. More detailed information about these thinkers and others can be found at The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Georgias

Georgias - If
              anyone has an image please let us know!
  • Lifetime : 485-380 BC
  • School of Thought : Greek Sophist
  • Concepts
    • Nothing Exists.
    • If anything does exist it cannot be known.
    • If anything exists and can be known it cannot be communicated

Protagoras

Protagoras
  • Lifetime : 480-411 BC
  • School of Thought : Greek Sophist
  • Concepts
    • Nothing is absolutely good or bad, true or false, so each individual is therefore his own final authority.
    • Man is the measure of all things

Socrates

Socrates
  • Lifetime : 470-399 BC
  • School of Thought : Greek Sophist
  • Concepts
    • Every person has innate knowledge of ultimate truth and need only be spurred into conscious reflection to become aware of it.
    • The philosophers task is to provoke thought not to teach.
    • Knowledge originates in sensory perception.

Plato

Plato
  • Lifetime : 428-347 BC
  • School of Thought : Rationalist
  • Concepts
    • Reality lies in abstract thought.
    • Abstract knowledge is superior to imperfect concrete observation.

Aristotle

Aristotle
  • Lifetime : 384-322 BC
  • School of Thought : Empiricist
  • Concepts
    • Knowledge is acquired through empirical evidence obtained through experience and observation.
    • Induction of principles from observation.
    • Represention of logic by the syllogism.

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas
              Aquinas
  • Lifetime : 1225-1274 AD
  • School of Thought : Catholic
  • Concepts
    • Perception is the starting point for knowledge and logic is the intellectual procedure for arriving at reliable knowledge. (Also believed in faith)

Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon
  • Lifetime : 1561-1620 AD
  • School of Thought : English Empiricist
  • Concepts
    • First to formulate rules of inductive inference.
    • Called for new scientific method based on inductive generalisation

Rene Descartes

Rene Descartes

Concepts

  • Lifetime : 1596-1650 AD
  • School of Thought : French Rationalist
  • Concepts
    • Based on mathematical proof.
    • Application of deductive and analytical methods.

Locke

Locke
  • Lifetime : 1632-1704 AD
  • School of Thought : English Empiricist
  • Concepts
    • Argued that knowledge is derived from experience either of the external world through sensation or the mind through reflection.
    • One cannot have absolute certain knowledge of the physical world.

George Berkeley

Berkeley
  • Lifetime : 1685-1753 AD
  • School of Thought : Irish Empiricist
  • Concepts
    • The only things that one can observe are ones own sensations and these are in the mind.
    • Knowledge comes from ideas but there is no distinction between ideas and objects.

Hume

David Hume
  • Lifetime : 1711-1776 AD
  • School of Thought : Scottish Empiricist
  • Concepts
    • Knowledge is of two kinds.
      • Knowledge comes from ideas but there is no distinction between ideas and objects.
      • Knowledge derived from the senses which is largely a knowledge of cause and effect, which means that one cannot hope to predict scientific development or for scientific knowledge to remain true.

Kant

Kant
  • Lifetime : 1724-1804 AD
  • School of Thought : German Idealist
  • Concepts
    • One can have certain knowledge but such knowledge is more informative about the structure of thought than about the outside world.
    • Three types of knowledge:
      1. Analytical base truths (uninformative).
      2. Synthetic - learned from experience - prone to error.
      3. Synthetic base truths - pure intuition (mathematics and philosophy)

Hegel

Hegel
  • Lifetime : 1770-1831 AD
  • School of Thought : German Rationalist Revival
  • Concepts
    • Thought and History.

Edmund Husserl

Husserl
  • Lifetime : 1859-1934 AD
  • School of Thought : Moravian Phenomenologist
  • Concepts
    • To distinguish the way things appear from the way one thinks that they really are.
    • Understanding the conceptual foundations of knowledge.

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Wittgenstein
  • Lifetime : 1889-1951 AD
  • School of Thought : Austrian Logical Positivist
  • Concepts
    • Logic empiricism.
    • Logic positivitism.
    • Use of language.
    • Tacit knowledge.
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